Quantum Security

While quantum technology opens new opportunities, including commercial, opportunities for societies and countries like Singapore and Germany, inherent risks and challenges, as well as political retention towards the establishment of open innovation and knowledge exchange emerge. In that sense, quantum technology is not only determined by individual strategies but also by building technology sovereignty that extends beyond local benefits. Quantum technology also enables digital sovereignty, as it depends on the ability to protect high-value assets and sensitive information. 

Once quantum technologies and applications become generally available and mature, there will be attacks and threats on a wider scale on quantum-enhanced and enabled systems with potential harm to the society and can lead to substantial socio-economic impact.  The early involvement of various stakeholders ensures that the implemented security measures can be used by everyone.

At Fraunhofer Singapore we investigate building blocks and innovations in secure quantum engineering, interconnected with safeguards, along the three research areas of Quantum Communication, Quantum Computing, and Quantum Applications. This includes two important aspects: Sovereignty and Resilience for Quantum Technologies and by Quantum Technologies with a strategic collaboration with Fraunhofer institutes and local partners in research, open innovation, new technologies, skills, and knowledge building. 

Quantum-Enhanced Cryptoanalysis

  • New algorithms and approaches for Quantum-enhanced Cryptoanalysis in the NISQ era
  • Combined Quantum-enhanced Side Channel Analysis

Quantum-Safe Communication Networks

  • Hybrid QKD & PQC in Practice
  • Quantum Security and Quantum Hacking, Evaluation and Hardening
  • Supporting Standardization, Deployment and Certification

Secure and Trusted Quantum Systems

  • Risks and Attacks on Quantum Components and Quantum System Architectures
  • Security and Trust for Quantum-enhanced Systems: Hardware and Software Co-Design and Development
  • Quantum Sovereignty and Resilience

Quantum Readiness & Preparedness

What is the Quantum Threat? What is Cryptoagility? And Why should You care?  

How Can Fraunhofer Help To Become Quantum Ready?

  • Identification of Opportunities and Risks for Quantum Technology Integration and Deployment
  • Feasibility Studies and Applied R&D
  • Security Test and Evaluation
  • Support Standardization Efforts

 

Our Services and Offers

We work closely with our customers and partners in order to systematically assess and improve the security of both, systems and products, to evaluate their reliability, to design them securely, and to sustainably ensure their security throughout the entire life cycle.

 

Evaluate security      

  • Evaluation of business an technology risks in accordance with a variety of assessment criteria as well as best practice standards
  • Quantum readiness checks and quantum risk audits for our customer and clients
  • Conducting threat and risk analyses of quantum systems and quantum-safe security communication services and solutions
  • Analysis of cryptographic methods in classic and quantum communication
  • Analysis and development of quantum-enabled technologies, like quantum random number generators, quantum key distribution (QKD) modules, quantum communication network infrastractures, security and trust of quantum and classical components

Design security 

  • Support regarding information security and data protection during development
  • Development of cryptographic-, IT security- and data protection concepts
  • Development of secure system architectures
  • Development of solutions regarding usability, data privacy and security
  • Secure software development
  • Inclusion of the latest technologies, e.g., hybrid QKD and PQC approaches
  • Quantum computer resistant cryptography, and cryptographic agility 

Maintain security   

  • Risk management and vulnerability management
  • Support in conducting security audits
  • Training in the areas of quantum communication technologies and post-quantum cryptography, quantum risk awareness.

Expertise

Quantum computers are having a significant impact on the security of asymmetric cryptographic methods being used today. A quantum computer algorithm developed by Shor in 1994 efficiently breaks cryptographic methods whose security relies either on the factorization problem (i.e., RSA encryption and digital signatures) or on the discrete logarithm problem (e.g., (EC)-DSA digital signatures or the key agreement method (EC) Diffie-Hellman).

This renders almost all currently used public key cryptographic systems  insecure (digital signatures, key agreement and public key encryption methods). This is bound to affect almost all cryptographically secured Internet connections (e.g., via https or Virtual Private Network (VPN)).

The focus of our research is centered around the security analysis of quantum computer resistant methods, investigations regarding the applicability and optimizations for devices with limited resources as well as the migration of existing systems towards quantum computer resistant systems.

Our research draws on experience from numerous research and development projects: Quantum computer-resistant algorithms ensure future proof cryptographic systems. Modern cryptographic processes and protocols guarantee that all requirements regarding information security and data protection are implemented properly.

Quantum Communication has a great mid-term and long-term potential for value addition and is able to secure transactions, keep the transmission, protection and long-term storage of sensitive data and ensure the digital sovereignty of sensitive information. Significant progress has been made in Quantum Communication and Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) in both, terrestrial communication and space-based communication.

We work with a particular attention to the vulnerability surface and quantum attacks on QKD, as well as classic attacks that could arise on the cryptographic primitives, protocols, tamper protection of the entire systems.

Evaluation of new attack methods and vulnerabilities will also help to harmonize and standardize security evaluation and assessment requirements for quantum technologies.

Quantum-Enhanced Cryptoanalysis in the NISQ Era. Today’s quantum computer cannot implement Shor’s algorithm in a way to become a real threat for classic cryptography. On the other hand, NISQ devices and algorithms like Variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) or the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) or newer approaches like Variational Quantum Cloning are hybrid algorithms that use NISQ devices but reduce the calculation load by implementing some parts of the algorithm in usual classical processors. We investigate new quantum algorithms for cryptoanalysis  and combinations with side-channel information to improve the practicality for Quantum Cryptanalysis that can provide a real benefit to current state of the art cryptoanalysis.

Like in classic systems, quantum technologies and its active usage are intertwined with security and resilience. This will raise many open technical and legal questions on availability, robustness, reliability and trust and its implications as well. To tackle these challenges, Fraunhofer works on building up capabilities in quantum research and development secure and trusted quantum systems.

Drawing on the learnings from other emerging technologies like artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, digital transformation underlines a need to investigate quantum applications together with its security implications and to mitigate risks and unintended consequences of unprotected technology. 

 

Selected Solutions & Activities

Quantum Readiness

Are You Quantum Ready Yet?

Fraunhofer Singapore will start an industry survey on Cryptography and the impact of Quantum-Computing on organizational prepardness. 

 

Crypto library for long-lasting security

BOTAN

As part of the BSI project, an open-source, secure, clear, controllable and well-documented C++ cryptographic library was developed in the form of BOTAN, which is suitable for as many deployment scenarios as possible and can also be used in applications with increased security requirements. Fraunhofer integrates several post-quantum algorithms to the library.

 

Quantum-Safe Networking

Quantum-Safe IPsec-Module and VPN

  • Scrutinizing the use of quantum-safe algorithms in VPN and key exchange protocols such as IKEv2 for IPsec and MKA/PACE for MACsec.
  • An implementation of schemes in established VPN software suites.

 

Project

National Quantum-Safe Network

In The Straits Times, learn more on how S'pore creates its first quantum cryptography testbed, to get closer to building an unhackable Internet

 

Fraunhofer AISEC

Quantum-Safe Communication for Industry 4.0

In the project "Post-Quantum-Safe Communication for Industry 4.0 (PoQsiKom)", Fraunhofer AISEC, TUM, Siemens and TRUMPF are jointly developing a new type of hardware trust anchor for operating technology and edge devices.